sobota, 19. julij 2008


Atemporal Universe into Dynamic Equilibrium


In the book “Relativity: The Special and General Theory” (1920) Einstein discussed that it makes no sense to think about space-time as an independent physical quantity. The basic medium into which runs material change is gravitational field. Space-time is only a structural quality of a gravitational field: "Space-time does not claim existence on its own but only as a structural quality of the [gravitational] field” (1).
The thesis here is that space-time as a structural quality of gravitational field is observer effect formed into the process of measurement. In quantum physics the term observer effect refers to changes that the act of observing will make on the phenomenon being observed; the observer is no longer external and neutral, but through the act of measurement he becomes himself a part of observed reality. Into scientific experiment “space-time” that is observer’s mathematical model also becomes structural quality of gravitational field.
When there is no measurement, space-time exists only as a mathematical model and do not exist as a structural quality of gravitational field. Einstein and Gödel were right saying that there is no time in the universe, that universe is a timeless (atemporal) phenomenon (2).
Time is what one measures with clocks. With clocks one measures duration and numerical order of material change that run into the atemporal gravitational field. Time enters into existence when one measures it. Special Theory of Relativity shows that speed of material change is slower into faster inertial system than in a slower inertial system. Clocks run slower into fast plane than on the surface of the planet. Twin on the spaceship is getting older slower than his brother on the planet Earth, but both are growing older into atemporal gravitational field. General Theory of Relativity shows that the speed of material change is slower into stronger atemporal gravitational field. Clocks are running slower at seaside than on the top of mountains above the sea (3,4).

Atemporal Universe

We live into atemporal, one can also says eternal universe. Eternity is not infinitely back into past and infinitely forward into future, eternity is this present moment. Einstein considered that there is no true division between past and future, there is rather a single existence. His most descriptive testimony to this faith came when his lifelong friend Besso died. Einstein wrote a letter to Besso's family, saying that although Besso had preceded him in death it was of no consequence, "...for us physicists believe the separation between past, present, and future is only an illusion, although a convincing one."

Albert Einstein about time: Space and time are modes by which we think, not conditions under which we live. Time--the time that we know through clocks and calendars--was invented.

Ernst Mach about time: It is utterly beyond our power to measure the changes of things by time. Quite the contrary, time is an abstraction at which we arrive by means of the changes of things.
Out of Einstein’s and Mach’s statements follows that in the universe nothing is “before” or “later” irreversible stream of material change runs into gravitational field that is timeless (atemporal). Human’s experience this irreversible stream into concept of “space and time”, scientist’s into concept of “space-time”. Time enters into existence when one measures it. We are living into eternal, atemporal, timeless universe being aware of that or not. Material change has no duration on its own. We give them a sense of duration by measuring them.

Roger Penrose about time: The temporal ordering that we 'appear' to perceive is, I am claiming, something that we impose upon our perceptions in order to make sense of them in relation to the uniform forward time-progression of an external physical reality.

Roger Penrose understanding of time is close to Einstein and Mach understanding. My interpretation is that by time-progression he means a constant stream of material change as in the universe one can perceive only a stream of material change and not time nor space. One can perceive only distances between material objects that exists into gravitational field and not space. Space exists as a mind model only. Time and space are man invention in order to measure duration, speed and numerical order of material change that run into atemporal gravitational field.

Density of Atemporal gravitational field

Atemporal gravitational field is a “direct gravitational medium between massive objects”. Gravity force exists between basic elements of gravitational field called “quanta of gravity” that build up cosmic space. Gravity field has a different density that depends on the density of matter into given volume of gravity field. Higher is density of matter; lower is density of gravity field. In General Theory of Relativity gravitational force is result of curvature of space. Stellar objects change geometry of space. Bigger is mass of a stellar object, more space is curved, bigger is gravitational force. Here idea arises that curvature of space in General Theory of Relativity is a measure of quantum density of gravitational field. More space is curved, less is density of gravitational field . Less space is curved, higher is its density.
Density of gravitational field increases with the distance from massive objects. Inside of massive objects density of field depends on density of mass . Higher is density of mass , lover is density of field . Where density of field is lower quanta of gravity are more “stretched” and have stronger tendency to “shrink”. This “shrinking” force is gravitational force that works between quanta of gravity. Gravity force keeps gravitational field together and that keeps together also three dimensional objects that exist into it. Atemporal gravitational field is a “direct gravity medium” between stellar objects. In a similar way atemporal gravitational field is a “direct information medium” between two elementary particles by “Einstein-Podolski-Rosen” experiment. Information does not travel between particle A and B, information is into gravitational field into which exist both of particles. Light is bend by passing massive stellar objects because of different density of gravity field through which moves. Physical space into which stellar objects exist cannot be curved on its own. Physical base of curvature of space is variable quantum density of gravitational field .

Density of gravitational field inside of black holes, binary neutron stars, in the centre of galaxies

Inside black holes density of gravity field is so low that gravity field has an enormous force of shrinking. This shrinking force disintegrates all subatomic particles back into quanta of gravity. Beyond Schwartschild radius mass transforms back into quanta of gravity. Black hole “sucks” matter from outer space and transforms it into quanta of gravity. Transformation “mass - quanta of space” continuously increases density of gravitational field in the centre of black hole that spreads with the light speed into outer space as a “gravitational waves”.
Astronomical observations of diminishing of speed of rotation (orbit time) of binary neutron stars PSR1913+16 is explained by transformation of mass of stars into gravitational radiation. According to the understanding here gravitational radiation is result of transformation of mass of stars into quanta of gravity in the centre of binary stars (similar as in the centre of black holes). Transformation “mass - quanta of gravity” increases density of gravitational field in the centre of stars that spreads with the light speed into outer space as a “gravitational radiation”.
Existence of gravitational waves that are emission of mass and are absorbed by mass in a similar way as electromagnetic waves might be a wrong preposition. Some researches exclude existence of gravitational waves that travel from stellar object A to stellar object B in order to keep them together (5,6).

Atemporal Universe into Dynamic Equilibrium

Astronomical observations show that Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) of our galaxy “eats” near stars and galaxies and time by time throws out huge amount of fresh gas (7). AGN transforms matter it into quanta of space. This process increases density of space into AGN. As by black stars and neutron binary stars gravitational waves are spreading into outer space also from AGN. When a huge amount of matter is entering AGN, density of gravitational field reaches certain maximum in a very short time. This sudden increasing of is a cause for a big explosion where gravitational quanta transform into elementary particles. After density turns below maximum value, explosion stops. AGN are “refreshing” fabric of the universe, they transform “old” matter into “fresh” matter and keep entropy of the universe constant.
In the universe there is a permanent fluctuation of energy “matter-space-matter-space”. Sum of density of matter and gravitational density of space in a given volume of universe tends to be in equilibrium: . When there is an access of density matter will turn into space, where there is an access of density gravitational energy of space will turn into matter. Universe is a dynamic system in a permanent dynamic equilibrium, there is no beginning and on end of the universe.


[1] Einstein A., Relativity: The Special and General Theory (1920), page 155
[2] Yourgrau P. (2006) A World Without Time: The Forgotten Legacy of Gödel And Einstein
[3] Sorli A., Sorli K. (2005) From Space-time to A-Temporal Physical Space,
Frontier Perspectives, Vol. 14, Num. 1.
[4] Fiscaletti D., Sorli A. (2005). Toward an a-temporal interpretation of
quantum potential. Frontier Perspectives, Vol. 14, Num. 2.
[5] Sorli A., Sorli I. (2005). A-Temporal Gravitation And Hypothetical Gravitational waves, Electronic Journal of Theoretical Physics, Vol 2, Num 5
[6] Loinger A. The gravitational waves are fictitious entities – II
[7] Goss. W.M. (2003). Sagittarius A* as an AGN

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